عنوان مقاله [English]
Mulla Sadra has given several answers to the problem of evil. He considered good as an existential thing and evil as non-existent, but offered two definitions of good and evil. In the present article, after examining the relationship between evil and non-existence, and the prime matter and entity, Sadra's seemingly contradictory statements in this regard were explained and Sadra's final opinion was introduced as the equating of evil with non-existence. On the other hand, according to the doubt in the unique reality and in the fundamentality of existence and in the union of the matter and form, as well as the question of the possibility of movement in abstractions, which is one of the essential principles of Sadra's Hekmat Motaalie, the material and abstract boundaries have been removed and the five probabilities of the universe posed by Aristotle in solving the problem of evil were reduced to three probabilities and caused the return of natural evil to metaphysical evil. Examining the moral evil, we finally came to the conclusion that the return of all evil to metaphysical evil, and the most central answer to the problem of evil based on the principles of Hekmat Motaalie is the non-existence of evil. Also, Sadra's general view of the world as a personal unit proved the superiority of the world and the system that governs it through the efficient and ultimate cause of the world, and attributed the evil in it to the existential need of the world.
کامرانی، سمیه؛ سعیدی مهر، محمد؛ ذهبی، سیدعباس، 1392ش، «امکان حرکت در مجردات از منظر ملاصدرا»، فصلنامه ذهن، س 14، ش 56، ص 5- 29.