عنوان مقاله [English]
Ash’ari theology is one of the most popular theological schools of thought among Sunni Muslims, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari. Ash’ari discourse is characterized by a rational-transmission approach, although its transmission aspect is more prominent. Ash’ari theologians, utilizing this method, have examined matters of belief. Imamate is among the issues addressed in their theological works. Since they do not believe in the inherent good or evil of things by reason alone, they consider the necessity of an Imamate as transmitted (traditional), viewing it as part of Islamic jurisprudence and secondary Islamic rulings, not as a fundamental principle of faith. Hence, they see its obligation as upon the people, not upon God. According to the Ash’arites, essential qualities of an Imam include being male, mature, just, free, and rational. They believe that the Imam’s duties include managing the Islamic community, establishing security and comfort, ensuring social justice, protecting the borders of the Islamic community, striving in the path of God, and securing the public’s sustenance. According to Ash’arites, textual evidence, selection by the people of resolution and contract, and dominance are methods for determining an Imam. Their views on Imamate have been subject to the critique of other theologians, particularly the Imamiyyah theologians.